Animal Waste-lagoon Aeration
A large industrial dairy or feedlots operation can generate as much waste as a mid-sized city. While cities spend millions of dollars each year to process and dispose of municipal waste, feedlots owners cannot afford such expenditures. Factory farms are thus limited to disposing of the manure in uncovered manure lagoons, or else spreading it on surrounding land.
The sheer size of the waste often leads to its over-application onto nearby fields. The predictable result is a threat to the safety of the air as well as ground and surface water sources. The contaminants of concern are disease pathogens such as E.coli and salmonella, and a host of air pollutants such as hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, volatile organic compounds, and particulate matter. Also, there are concerns over antibiotics, metals, and toxic substances in the waste.
Feedlots owner/operators use one of the two methods to process animal waste. These methods are anaerobic digestion and aerobic metabolism. Byproducts of anaerobic digestion include high odor, formaldehyde, mercaptans, aldehydes, and other compounds that can harm crops or soil. In contrast, aerobic metabolism results in a liquid compost that can be highly beneficial to plants and soils.
The primary function of an anaerobic lagoon is to remove, destroy, and stabilize organic matter, but not to “purify” the water. The advantage of this system is in its ability to concentrate solid wastes. High levels of gas and odor are clear near these types of lagoons. These systems are characterized by a relatively solids-free liquid zone located above a layer of bottom sediment.
The end products of aerobic digestion are mainly carbon dioxide and water. Virtually any degree of processing can be obtained in the anaerobic lagoon since digestion is a function of time, oxygen availability, and carbon content.
Aerobic lagoons can be in the form of oxidation ponds or mechanically aerated ponds. Oxidation ponds are naturally occurring dissolved oxygen from the air or algae in the water and depend on it. Because the oxygen demand is high in a manure lagoon, the surface area of an oxidation pond must be large to enhance the air exchange at the water surface.
|€£¥α$ΩϢЉЩѨ||2009/38/EC (EWC) Article 2 par. 1 (f)(g)||2009/38/EC (EWC) Article 2 par. 1 (f)(g)||2001/86/EC (SE) Article 2 (i)(j)|
|Information||“means transmission by the employer to the employees’ representatives of data in order to enable them to acquaint themselves with the subject matter and to examine it”||“means the transmission of data by the employer to the employees’ representatives in order to enable them to acquaint themselves with the subject matter and to examine it; information shall be given at such time, in such fashion and with such content as are appropriate to enable employees’ representatives to undertake an in-depth assessment of the possible impact and, where appropriate, prepare for consultations with the competent organ of the Community-scale undertaking or Community-scale group of undertakings”||“means the informing of the body representative of the employees and/or employees’ representatives by the competent organ of the SE on questions which concern the SE itself and any of its subsidiaries or establishments situated in another Member State or which exceed the powers of the decision-making organs of a single Member State at a time, in a manner and with a content which allows the employees’ representatives to undertake an in-depth assessment of the possible impact and, where appropriate, prepare consultations with the competent organ of the SE”|
|Consultation||“means the exchange of views and establishment of the dialogue between the employees’ representatives and the employer”||“means the establishment of dialogue and exchange of views between employees’ representatives and central management or any more the appropriate level of management, at such time, in such fashion and with such content as enables employees’ representatives to express an opinion on the basis of the information provided about the proposed measures to which the consultation is related, without prejudice to the responsibilities of the management, and within a reasonable time, which may be taken into account within the Community-scale undertaking or Community-scale group of undertakings”||“means the establishment of dialogue and exchange of views between the body representative of the employees and/or the employees’ representatives and the competent organ of the SE, at a time, in a manner and with a content which allows the employees’ representatives, on the basis of information provided, to express an opinion on measures envisaged by the competent organ which may be taken into account in the decision-making the process within the SE”|